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Predestination of Good and Evil. Destiny Qadar

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم

Praise be to God the Creator of the world, the One Who exists without beginning, without end, without location, without a "how" and Who does not depend on time. Nothing resembles Him in anyway and He hears and sees everything without organs. Whatever you imagine, God is different from that. May the elevation in degree and preservation of his community of what he fears for it, be granted to our master MuHammad Al-‘Amin, the Honest One, who called for following Islam, the religion of truth, the religion of all the Prophets: of the First, Adam, to the last MuHammad.

It is a duty to believe that God has predestined and created good and evil, but Allah rewards good and does not reward evil. Allah orders good and forbids the evil. God is the creator of the acts of slaves, of their wills and of their intentions whether they be good or evil.

Believing in the destiny qadar good and evil means: to believe that everything that comes into existence, be it good or evil, is by the Eternal Will of Allah. The good actions of the slave are according to the Will and Acceptance of Allah. The evil actions of the slave are according to the Will of Allah, but not His Acceptance. Allâh says in the Qur’an:

﴿ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ ﴾

Which means: « Certainly, We create everything according to a Destiny. » [Surat Al-Qamar, ‘âyah 49] ; (Here it is the "We" of glorification that designates God).

The Prophet MuHammad Salla lLâhu `alayhi wa sallam said: « There will be people from my community who will become disbelievers in Allâh and in the Qur'an and they do not realize, I said O messenger of God, how do they say? He said they believe in some of the predestination and they deny part of it, they say the good comes from God and the evil comes from the chaytan. », related by Imam Al Bayhaqiyy with a chain of transmission according to Râfi` ibnou Khadîj the companion of the the Prophet.

The Prophet MuHammad Sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam, said:

« اْلإِيمَانُ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاخِرِ وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ »

Which means: « Belief is to believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, the Day of Judgment, and to believe in the qadar (destiny), both the good and the evil. » [Related by Muslim]

The meaning of this Hadith is as follows: the creatures whom Allah has predestined, among whom there is good and evil, exist by the eternal predestination of Allâh. Thus, predestination, which is an attribute of Allah, can not be described as bad in itself.

Allâh also says in the Qur’an:

﴿وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَآتَيْنَا كُلّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا وَلَكِنْ حَقّ الْقَوْلُ مِنِّي لَأَمْلَأَنّ جَهَنّمَ مِنَ الْجِنّةِ وَالنّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ﴾

Which means: « if God wanted, He would have guided everyone [to Islam], but God wanted there to be humans and jinn entering Hell. » [Surat As-sajdah, ‘Ayah 13]. God does what He wants, He is not questioned about what He does. Allâh says in the Qur’an:

﴿لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ﴾

Which means: « God is not questioned about what He does and the slaves will be questioned. » [Surat Al-‘Anbiyâ, ‘Ayah 23]

The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank, said to his cousin `Abdoullâh Ibn `Abbas:

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الأُمَّةَ لَوِ اجْتَمَعَتْ عَلَى أَنْ يَنْفَعُوكَ بِشَيْءٍ لَمْ يَنْفَعُوكَ إِلاَّ بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللهُ لَكَ، وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ لَمْ يَضُرُّوك إِلاَّ بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللهُ لَكَ، رُفِعَتِ الأَقْلاَمُ وَجَفَّتِ الصُّحُفُ.

Which means: « Know that if the entire nation agree to benefit you with something, they will not benefit you except with what Allah has willed for you. Likewise, if they agree to harm you with something, they will not harm you except with what Allah has willed for you. The Pen has been lifted, and the Tablet has dried. » [Related by at-Tirmidhiyy]

Believing in al-Qadar

Believing in al-Qadar is among the fundamental basics of the Islamic creed. The one who denies al-Qadar is a blasphemer.

The definition of al-Qadar is the managing of things so they occur in compliance with the Eternal Knowledge of Allah and His Eternal Will.

Al-Qadar has also another meaning which is al-maqdur (i.e. the created things that exist by the predestination of Allah). According to the second meaning, it includes both good and evil. All the good and bad deeds of a slave occur by the Will of Allah.

Both good and evil are part of this universe and thus they occur by al-Qadar of Allah ta`âlâ.

This is clarified by the Hadith narrated by Muslim in which the Prophet answered Jibril when he asked him about the correct belief. The Prophet MuHammad Sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam, said:

« الإِيمَانُ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ »

(‘al-‘îmânu ‘an tu’mina bi l-Lâhi wa malâ’ikatihi wa kutubihi wa ruçulihi wa l-yawmi l-‘âkhiri wa tu’mina bi l-qadari khayrihi wa charrih)

Which means: « Belief is to believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, the Day of Judgment, and to believe in the qadar (destiny), both the good and the evil. » [Related by Muslim]

Al-Bayhaqiyy narrated that our master `Aliyy said: « No one amongst you would have the proper belief in his heart unless one firmly believes without any doubt that whatever happens to one, had not been predestined to miss one, and whatever misses one, had not been predestined to happen to one. One must believe that al-Qadar encompasses all the creations. » Thus, it is blasphemous to believe that only part of the creations are encompassed by al-Qadar while other creations are not.

Allâh ta`âlâ said in Surat Al-Furqan, Ayah 2:

﴿ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىء ﴾

(wa khalaqa kulla chay’)

which means: « And He created everything. » The universe in its entirety is a creation of Allah ta^ala. He is the One Who makes things run according to His eternal Will and Knowledge. Hence, nothing happens in the entire universe except by His management.

Al-Bayhaqiyy related that the Prophet, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: « O Allah, the One Who controls the hearts, guide our hearts to obey to You. »

Allâh, ta`âlâ, said in Surat Az-Zumar, Ayah 62:

﴿ اللهُ خَالِقُ كُلِ شَىء ﴾

(Allâhu khâliku kulli chay’)

which means: « Allah is the Creator of everything. »

The Will of Allah does not change because change occurs in creatures, and change is the most significant sign of being a creation. Allâh ta`âlâ said in Surat Qaf, Ayah 29:

﴿ مَا يُبَدَّلُ القَوْلُ لَدَيّ ﴾

which means: « That which I have decreed does not change. »

Imam Muslim related that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: « Allah said the meaning of which is: O Muhammad, if I decreed a matter then it will never be opposed. » Allah changes the creatures in accordance with His Will that does not change. Whatever He willed to happen shall occur at the time that He willed for it to exist, and that which He did not will for to happen shall never exist.

Abu Dawud related that the Messenger of Allah said:

« مَا شَاءَ اللّهُ كَانَ وَمَا لَمْ يَشَأْ لَمْ يَكُنْ »

which means: « Whatever Allah willed to be shall be and whatever Allah did not will to be shall not be. » Good and evil, obedience and sinning, and blasphemy and belief all of that occur by the Will of Allah, His Knowledge, Decree, and Creating. However, the good is accepted and ordered by Allah and evil is not accepted or ordered by Him.

Allâh ta`âlâ said in surat al-Furqân, Ayah 2:

﴿ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا ﴾

which means: « He created everything and made terms for them » Allâh said in surat as-Sâffât, Ayah 96:

﴿ وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴾

which means: « Allâh created you and your doings » Also, Allâh said in surat al-Qamar, Ayah 49:

﴿ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ ﴾

which means: « Verily, I have created everything according to My Destiny »

The term shay’ (thing) in these verses includes everything which enters into existence. Bodies, the voluntary and involuntary motions and rests of the slaves, and what pertains to them are not excluded. Moreover, voluntary actions far exceed the involuntary ones. Linguistically, the term shay’ (thing) refers to what is existing--which includes these voluntary actions.